'---/Mechanical counterpoints (see next section) of the type al-ready described as inversions and obvious successions are seen.---/'


Fig.161. Three different coloured lines drawn by a single person with a comment on the possibility of selecting abstract forms belonging to each line

'---/ Also the repetition of unconscious action in the presence of a strongly deformed underlaying field---/ 'and the changes of an imposed field upon unconscious drawing.'
The superimposition of an unconscious line together with any kind of field (concave curves, sine curves, horizontals etc...) will give the opportunity of filling in the surfaces alternately with a ratio 1:1. This will create a labile surface.


Fig.162. Unconscious drawing executed by Hayter with filled intervals in a continuous wandering line superimposed on concave curves
This superimposition creates a rocking effect cradle and sure.


Fig.163. Unconscious Drawing by S.W. Hayter, superimposed on waves of decreasing amplitude, whereas the sine waves create a desire to continue to extrapolate

'---/ Clearly enormous variation will arise between the drawings of different individuals which may be slight or extremely elaborate and in some cases carried by saturation beyond the inversion to white on black./---'


Fig.164. Saturated drawing beyond the conversion to white on black so the white spots appear to float before the black

'---/Collages are assembled from fragments of different people's drawings. Some of them, as in folding, can be used to demonstrate the phenomenon of continuity / discontinuity already exploited in the formal experiments (see section 'Formal Operation').). Although this operation might seem inconsistent we understand that all and every means shall be employed and deliberate, unconscious use of material derived from unconscious action included.'


'New ways of Gravure', Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, 1981
To the left appears a discontinuous drawing; to the right two drawings separated by their colours which yet merge with each other in the upward motion directed toward the right with the force of directions inherent in space and yet can be regarded as separate.


Fig.165. Collage assembled from fragments of different people's drawings
The operation consists of cutting and assembling fragments of drawings executed by two persons working on different paper. The resulting figure is lacking the usual unity imposed by a solitary worker although it doesn't prevent another sort of coherence from arising.

'As soon as enough familiarity with the practice of mechanical counterpoint has been acquired similar experiments are undertaken with unconscious counterpoint, again using different colours to distinguish the progressive image.'
"The idea of unconscious counterpoint has been familiar to us for many years, but although it can be verified in the drawing of many artists - from Cezanne to Giacometti - we have found few who have studied it consciously. An obvious advantage of such a faculty is seen when work appears unsatisfactory, yet there appears nothing further to be done. Seeing through one's drawing to an almost unlimited succession of possibilities definitly avoids this position; however it does not pretend to provide a ready solution for all problems, as it confronts one with so many consequences from which to choose. Still it appears to us that the difficulty of too great a wealth of image is preferable to poverty." 9


Fig.166. Unconscious drawing in which the radical changes of direction can be seen, the radical turning and reversing points
First an unconscious drawing is made, the hand moving from the shoulder at intermitently changing speeds, the mind as blank as possible.

Then the drawing is rotated, turned upside down or by 270° degrees so that it presents another unreconizable aspect. It acts as new and unknown. This then is stared at in an almost dazed way while the hand unnoticed but secretly sensible is drawing above it, the attention remaining concentrated on the original drawing not looking at what is in process of being drawn.
It might be easier to work this art by using a different colour or thickness of line. This is a new way of looking which can be cultivated. An analogy illuminating but misleading if taken too far, would be a long term exposure in photography so the objects moving through space almost disappear, leaving only slight traces or it can refer to S.W. Hayter's analogy of a new skill like shooting from the hip which must be practised in order to function.
If this method of looking seems impossibly difficult, one can, while gazing at the original unconscious drawing, create an unconscious counterpoint on another piece of transparent paper placed immediatly beside it and then superimpose them or select by intuition which section of the unconscious counterpoint should be included in the original drawing. These represent three possibilities of creating unconscious counterpoint.

"As soon as the idea of unconscious counterpoint has been confirmed, it becomes possible to continue the experiment by intuitive means rather than by mechanical consequences. Whereas the latter would have to be based on extracting simpler forms, the unconscious permits the simultaneous recognition of all the extremely complex overtones that have developped." 9


Fig.167. Unconscious counterpoint superimposed on unconscious drawing.


Fig.168. Unconscious counterpoint superimposed on unconscious drawing with intersections and figurative reference. In five places there are exact intersections of three or more lines and that is too remarkable to be sheer coincidence.
Furthermore one might pick up figurative reference out of this conjunction of lines. This must be found by imagination: a jump of intuition in a surprisingly concrete dimension and can easily be lost, or else the lines progress with their own movement unencumbered by figurative reference.


.XXVII. MAY 86, S.W.Hayter
Painting, Catalogue of The Ehibition, Galerie J.C. Riedel, , 12 rue Guénégaud, Paris
Conscious counterpoint superimposed on unconscious drawing in the context of sine waves and concave curves: a complexity of regular wave shapes which recede and emerge.

9  'New Ways of Gravure', S.W. Hayter, Watson-Guptill Publications, section 17, 'Les Méthodes d'Enseignement à l'Atelier 17'. New York, 1981